Organizational Behavior relates to the relationship between employees and the employer in an organization.
Both are working towards the realization of the goals and objectives of any organization, and a close and fruitful coordination between the two is one of the major factors towards this realization.
Organizational behavior approaches are a result of the research done by experts in this field.
These experts studied and attempted to quantify research done about actions and reactions of employees, with regard to their work environments.
It is a field that has begun developing only recently and new approaches and results are being expounded every day.
There are 4 Approaches to Organizational Behavior studies;
- Human resources approach.
- Contingency approach.
- Productivity approach.
- Systems approach.
And one more approach to study organizational behavior is Interdisciplinary Approach.
Human Resources Approach
This approach recognizes the fact that people are the central resource in any organization and that they should be developed towards higher levels of competency, creativity, and fulfillment.
People thus contribute to the success of the organization.
The human resources approach is also called as the supportive approach in the sense that the manager’s role changes from control of employee to active support of their growth and performance.
The supportive approach contrasts with the traditional management approach.
In the traditional approach, managers decided what employees should do and closely monitored their performance to ensure task accomplishment.
In the human resources approach, the role of managers changes from structuring and controlling to supporting.
The contingency approach (sometimes called the situational approach) is based on the premise that methods or behaviors which work effectively in One situation fail in another.
For example; Organization Development (OD) programs, way work brilliantly in one situation but fail miserably in another situation.
Results differ because situations differ, the manager’s task, therefore, is to identify which method will, in a particular situation, under particular circumstances, and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of organization’s goals.
The strength of the contingency approach lies in the fact it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action while at the same time discourages the habitual practice of universal assumptions about methods and people.
The contingency approach is also more interdisciplinary, more system – oriented and more research-oriented titan any other approach.
Productivity which is the ratio of output to input is a measure of an organization’s effectiveness. It also reveals manager’s efficiency in optimizing resource utilization.
The higher the numerical value of this ratio, the greater the efficiency.
Productivity is generally measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs, but human and social inputs and outputs also are important.
For example, if better organizational behavior can improve job satisfaction, a human output or benefit occurs.
In the same manner, when employee development programs lead to better citizens in a community, a valuable social output occurs.
Organizational behavior decisions typically involve human, social, and/or economic issues, and so productivity usually a significant part of these decisions is recognized and discusses extensively in the literature on OB.
The Systems Approach to OB views the organization as a united, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts.
This approach gives managers a way of looking at the organization as a whole, whole, person, whole group, and the whole social system.
In so doing, systems approach tells us that the activity of any segment of an organization affects, in varying degrees the activity of every other segment. A systems view should be the concern of every person in an organization.
The clerk at a service counter, the machinist, and the manager all work with the people and thereby influence the behavioral quality of life in an organization and its inputs.
Managers, however, tend to have a larger responsibility, because they are the ones who make majority are people oriented.
The role of managers, then, is to use organizational behavior to help build an organizational culture in which talents are utilized and further developed, people are motivated, teams become productive, organizations achieve their goals and society reaps the reward.
Organizational behavior is an integration of all other social sciences and disciplines such as psychology, sociology, organizational theories etc.
They all are interdependent and influence each other. The man is studied as a whole and therefore, all disciplines concerning man are integrated.