Job transfer occurs when an employee moves from one job to another that is relatively equal in pay, responsibility, and status.
A transfer is a lateral movement of an employee, not involving the promotion or demotion. Job transfer may require an employee to change his work group, workplace, or organizational unit.
The HR department must be able to reallocate its human resources to meet internal and external challenges.
Meaning of Job Transfer
Job transfer is a relocation of an employee to the same class in a different department of the job site or to a related classification within the same salary range.
According to Keith Davis,
“Job transfers occur when an employee is moved from one job to another position that is relatively equal in pay, responsibility and/organizational level.”
It relates to mobility, which is limited to the motility of a worker from one job to another job at a similar level of the hierarchy.
Job transfer is viewed as an alteration in a job in which the worker moves from one job to another in the unchanged level of a hierarchy involving alike skills, involving the same level of tasks, the similar rank and the identical level of income.
Therefore, job transfer is a horizontal job assignment.
A transfer is a lateral move to a position in the same classified pay range (classified position) or to a position with comparable duties and responsibilities (non-classified positions).
A transfer may be beneficial to job holders.
The main benefits are :
- The broadening experience of a transfer may provide a person with new skills and a different perspective that makes him a better candidate for future promotions.
- By moving people into jobs, managers may be able to improve the utilization of their human resources.
- A transfer may even improve an individual’s motivation and satisfaction, especially when a person finds little challenge in the old job. The new position may offer new technical and interpersonal challenges. In turn, these challenges may prove to be a growth-oriented opportunity for the transferee.
Objectives of Job Transfer (Why Transfer is Used)
Transfers are generally affected to achieve the following purposes:
- To satisfy the needs of an organization arising out of a change. To satisfy organizational necessities owing to the quality of products, alteration in a program of production, alteration in technology, variations in the market conditions for instance introduction of new lines, demand variation, dipping of existing lines.
- To meet the request of an employee. Employees might rather ask for a transfer so as to satisfy their wish to work under a friendly manager, in a unit where prospects for progression are brilliant, near their resident place or where the job itself is more demanding.
- To utilize properly the services of an employee who is not performing satisfactorily.
- To suit the age and health of an employee.
- To train the employee for later advancement and promotion.
- To supply creative opportunities to deserving employees.
- To correct erroneous placement.
- To adjust the workforce of one plant or department with that of another when one is closed down.
- To perk up employees background by placing him in diverse jobs in different units. This develops the employee and facilitates him to acknowledge any job.
- To adjust the employees for the period of layoff or unfavorable business conditions. To work out interpersonal clashes.
- To give release to the employees who are overloaded or doing complex work for a long time. To penalize the employees who go against the disciplinary rules.
- To facilitate employees whose workplace or working hours are not convenient for them. To reduce bribe/fraud which fallout because of permanent stay and contact with suppliers, dealers, customers, etc.
Types of Job Transfer
Transfers can be categorized into the following types;
- Replacement transfer,
- Production transfer,
- Shift transfer,
- Rotation transfer,
- Penal transfer, and
- Remedial transfer.
1. Production Transfer
Transfers from jobs in which labor requirements are declining to jobs in which they are increasing (through resignation or otherwise) are called production transfer.
This type of transfer is made to avoid lay-off efficient employees by providing them with alternative positions in the same organization.
2. Replacement Transfer
Replacement transfers are transfers in which a long-service employee is transferred to a similar job where he replaces or “bumps” an employee with shorter service.
This type of transfer is made when all operations are declining but management wants to retain the long-service employee as long as possible.
3. Rotation Transfer
Also known as Versatility transfer. Rotation transfer is for the purpose of providing management with a more versatile group of employees.
This type of transfer will increase the versatility of the employee by shifting him from one job to another. The employee gets an opportunity for varied job experience. This helps the employee through job enlargement.
4. Shift Transfer
Where there is more than one shift and shift assignments are not rotating, transfer from one shift to another on the same type of work is termed shift transfer.
Generally, workers dislike second shift assignment as it conflicts with their social life. To help workers to participate in social life, shift transfers have been introduced.
5. Remedial Transfer
These transfers are made to remedy the situation. Remedial transfers provide management with a procedure whereby an unsatisfactory placement can be corrected.
Initial placement might be faulty or the type of job might not suit his health; in such cases, the worker would benefit by transfer to a different kind of work.
6. Penal Transfer
Sometimes the transfer is used as a concealed penalty. This is widely practiced in Bangladesh. A trade union activist or a trouble-maker or a sea-lawyer may be transferred to a remote branch where he cannot continue his activities.
Some transfers may involve a decrease in job duties and in pay.
This type of transfer should better be called downgrading or bumping since it is used to protect employment opportunities for employees displaced from higher rated jobs. They are downgraded to less desirable jobs, bumping junior employees, who in turn may be laid off.
A good transfer policy should have the following features:
- Specify the types of transfers and the conditions under which these will be made.
- Locate the authority in some officer who may initiate and implement transfers.
- Indicate the basis for transfer-whether it is based on seniority or any other factor.
- Transfers should be in writing and duly communicated to all employees.
- Transfers should not be made frequently.
Benefits of Transfer
- Boost employee’s job satisfaction.
- Trims down employee’s boredom, monotony.
- Develops employee’s knowledge, skills, etc.
- Prepare employees to meet up organizational urgent needs.
- Correct interpersonal conflicts and mistaken placements.
Problems of Transfer
- Cause expenditure and trouble to the employees and his family members with respect to housing, education of children, etc.
- Adjustment troubles to the new job. surroundings, place, colleagues, and superiors.
- Discrepancy transfers affect an employee’s self-esteem, commitment, job satisfaction, and contribution.
- Give rise to the loss of man-days.