The motivation process progresses through a series of discrete steps. Needs/motives are the starting point of motivation. An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual.
These drives generate a search behavior to achieve particular goals that will satisfy the need and lead to a reduction of tension. The action taken by the individual will lead to reward/goal which satisfies the need and reduces tension.
No matter which theory of motivation the manager is following, the process is always similar.
The motivation process is presented in the following diagram;
Employee motivation is of crucial concern to management; mainly because of the role that employee motivation plays in performance.
Identify Unsatisfied Needs and Motives
The first process of motivation involves unsatisfied needs and motives. Unsatisfied needs activated by internal stimuli such as hunger and thirst. They can also be activated by external stimuli such as advertisement and window display.
Unsatisfied needs create tension in the individual. Such tension can be physical, psychological, and sociological. In this situation, people try to develop objects that will satisfy their needs.
Action to satisfy needs and motives
Such tension creates a strong internal stimulus that calls for action. Individual engages in action to satisfy needs and motives for tension reduction.
For this purpose, alternatives are searches and choice are made, the action can be hard work for earning more money.
Action to satisfy needs and motives accomplishes goals. It can be achieved through reward and punishment. When actions are carried out as per the tensions, then people are rewarded others are punished. Ultimately goals are accomplished.
Feedback provides information for revision or improvement or modification of needs as needed. Depending on how well the goal is accomplished their needs and motives are modified. Drastic changes in environment necessitate the revision and modification of needs.
Usually, performance is determined by;
- environment and
If any of these three factors is missing or deficient, effective performance is impossible.
A manager may have the most highly qualified employees under him and provide them with the best possible environment, but effective performance will not result unless the subordinates are motivated to perform well.
Therefore, management can do its job effectively only through motivating employees to work for the accomplishment of organizational objectives.