Self-Efficacy Theory by Albert Bandura

Self-Efficacy Theory of Bandura follows the principle that people are likely to engage in activities to the extent that they perceive themselves to be competent at those activities.

Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s effectiveness in performing specific tasks.

Albert Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy has important implications with regard to motivation.

According to staples et al. (1998), self-efficacy theory suggests that there are four major sources of information used by individuals when forming self-efficacy judgments.

In order of strength:

People who regard themselves as a highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. They produce their own future, rather than simply foretell It. – Albert Bandura

Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs

4 sources of self-efficacy are;

  1. Performance Accomplishments.
  2. Vicarious Experience.
  3. Social Persuasion.
  4. Physiological and Emotional States.

Self-Efficacy Theory by Albert Bandura

Performance Accomplishments

Personal assessment information that is based on an individual’s personal accomplishments.

Previous successes raise mastery expectations, while repeated failures lower them.

Vicarious Experience

Gained by observing others perform activities successfully.

This is often referred to as modeling, and it can generate expectations in observers that they can improve their own performance by learning from what they have observed.

Related: Theory X and Theory Y of Motivation by McGregor

Social Persuasion

Activities where people are led, through suggestion, into believing that they can cope successfully with specific tasks. Coaching and giving evaluative feedback on performance are common types of social persuasion.

Physiological and Emotional States

The individual’s physiological or emotional states influence self-efficacy judgments with respect to specific tasks. Emotional reactions to such tasks (e.g., anxiety) can lead to negative judgments of one’s ability to complete the tasks.